HCSS & CE Delft: Decarbonising maritime bunkering in the Netherlands and the embargo on Russian oil | 2023

The European Union’s (EU) sanctions on the import of Russian oil have far-reaching consequences for the global oil market and European security of supply. At the same time, Fit-for-55 (FF55) plans for decarbonizing maritime shipping are under development and the various legislative proposals are expected to start being implemented around 2025. Sanctions could have an impact on the international position and decarbonization trajectory of the ARA (Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp) region, an important energy trade hub and the second largest bunkering port in the world. This report develops qualitative storylines that focus on the impacts of the sanctions on Russian oil on bunkering in ARA and the implementation of FF55 plans.